McMonagle A, Schouten EG, A systematic review59 evaluated a variety of outcomes such as cough and global improvement scores in children (age two to seven years), but statistically significant improvements were infrequent and inconsistent and of doubtful clinical significance.59,68 In addition, a Canadian review of codeine for acute cough in children found no benefit when compared with placebo.69 In adults, antihistamines and codeine had no effect on cough.59 One study of guaifenesin found no benefit; in another, 75% of participants reported that guaifenesin was helpful for their cough, compared with 31% given placebo (p < 0.01).59 Dextromethorphan had mixed results, with two positive trials showing a 12%–36% improvement in cough scores (p < 0.05).59 Combination products seemed to have some benefit, but there is little consistency in outcomes and it is not clear whether all negative outcomes were reported. 2013;(6):CD000247. Prasad AS, ; 2008;74(6):633–637. 5(September 1, 2019) CHEST Expert Cough Panel. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. Accessed November 21, 2018. https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/SpecialFeatures/ucm263948.htm. Singh M, For a fever, sore throat and headache, many people turn to acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or other mild pain relievers. 75. Beiler J, Since there is no cure for the common cold, treatment has two goals: to make you feel better and to help you fight off the virus. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDARIS randomized controlled trial. Kelly J, To make yourself as comfortable as possible when you have a cold, try: Using saline nasal drops. Findings on physical examination can be helpful in diagnosing otitis media (e.g., a bulging tympanic membrane has a likelihood ratio of 51),23 and there are simple rules for prescribing antibiotics or using watchful waiting in children with possible otitis media.24. Antihistamines combined with decongestants, analgesics or both appear to have a small to moderate effect on the common cold in older children and adults. Pappas DE, et al. 2013;(1):CD000980. In spite of ongoing studies, the scientific jury is still out on common alternative cold remedies such as vitamin C and echinacea. Analgesics. Jaiswal N, Lowry JA, et al. We used lower levels of evidence for general information such as epidemiology. Ebell MH, Use of the probiotic resulted in a reduction of 0.6 upper respiratory tract infections per 100 person-days (p = 0.036). Cough syrups. Lecchi M, Bauer R. Vaccines for the common cold. This makes mucus flow more freely and helps with congestion. This means more mucus and worse congestion. Collaboration. ; Strnad P, Over-the-counter cold medications should not be used in children younger than four years. for a related project. Probiotics may be helpful in preventing upper respiratory tract infections, but the interventions and evidence are inconsistent. Antihistamines for the common cold. Freestone C, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs—mainly ibuprofen—have been shown to reduce headache, ear pain, muscle pain, joint pain, and sneezing but do not improve cough, cold duration, or total symptom score. Gould DJ, Try rubbing diluted eucalyptus oil on the chest as a decongestant, or inhale eucalyptus or peppermint oil to clear stuffiness. Dong BR, Here are recipes for these and other cold-fighting foods and drinks. Zinc side effects include a bad taste and nausea. 26. 1999;88(4):465–467. However, significantly increased adverse events over placebo included burning sensation to the skin (28%), nose (14%) and eyes (16%) (p < 0.001 each). A systematic review and meta-analysis, Anosmia after intranasal zinc gluconate use, Why most published research findings are false, Anticipating and managing coagulopathy and thrombotic manifestations of severe COVID-19, Update on fertility preservation for younger women with breast cancer, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) serology: implications for clinical practice, laboratory medicine and public health, www.cmaj.ca/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1503/cmaj.121442/-/DC1, www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/acute-otitis-media, http://publications.nice.org.uk/respiratory-tract-infections-antibiotic-prescribing-cg69, www.acfp.ca/Portals/0/docs/TFP/20111213_065849.pdf, www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/recall-alert-rappel-avis/hc-sc/2008/13267a-eng.php.
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